Aldosterone is a steroid hormone that is made by the adrenal cortex (the outer layer of the adrenal gland).
The aldosterone helps control the balance of water and salts in the kidney by keeping sodium in and releasing potassium from the body.
Too much aldosterone can cause high blood pressure and a build-up of fluid in body tissues.
Aldosterone is the main mineralocorticoid steroid hormone produced by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland.
It is essential for sodium conservation in the kidney, salivary glands, sweat glands, and colon.
Hyperaldosteronism is a condition in which one or both adrenal glands produce too much of the hormone aldosterone.
This can lower potassium levels, which can cause weakness and muscle spasms.
Hyperaldosteronism can be treated with medication, or if necessary, surgery.
Aldosterone plays an important role in the pathophysiology of heart failure.
This substance promotes retention of sodium and loss of potassium, activates the sympathetic nervous system and myocardial and vascular fibrosis, and causes baroreceptor dysfunction.
Aldosterone increases urine production and decreases apical AQP2 expression in rats with diabetes insipidus.
Aldosterone secretion is stimulated by an actual or apparent depletion in blood volume detected by stretch receptors and by an increase in serum potassium ion concentrations; it is suppressed by hypervolemia and hypokalemia.
The release of aldosterone from the adrenal glands is regulated via the renin-angiotensin II-aldosterone system.
This system is initially activated via a decrease in the mean arterial blood pressure to increase the blood pressure.
People with primary aldosteronism (PA) are thought to be a natural model for chronic aldosterone excess, showing significantly higher scores for depression and anxiety compared to the general population, with females being more affected than males.
Primary hyperaldosteronism caused by an adrenal gland tumor is usually treated with surgery.
It can sometimes be treated with medicines.
Removing the adrenal tumor may control the symptoms.
Aldosterone antagonists are an important pharmacologic therapy in the neurohormonal blockade necessary in the treatment of systolic heart failure.
These drugs have been shown to decrease mortality and reduce hospital readmission rates.
Aldosterone is well known to increase sodium reabsorption and potassium secretion by the kidney.
It exerts its main effects on sodium and potassium balance by binding to the mineralocorticoid receptor (MCR) located in the distal convoluted tubule, connecting segment and cortical collecting duct in the kidney.