The 17 HMR is not the ideal or best when it comes to hunting and killing deer when hunting.
But the 17 HMR will kill a deer if you're pretty skilled at hunting but the 17 HMR fires the bullet at much higher velocities than some other rifles but the bullet is a lighter bullet.
So it may take some practice and you may have to be closer to the deer to be able to kill the deer with the 17 HMR but it can kill a deer if you're skilled enough.
Though a much more powerful rifle would be better to kill the deer easier.
Also deer are pretty fast and intelligent so it's very easy for them to get away from you if the deer is not killed or hit with the 17 HMR you use.