Yes you can pay with a personal check at Walmart Stores.
As long as you have the money in the checking account, your name is on the check and it's dated for that day and you have ID then Walmart will accept the personal checks.
The check will go through a machine to do an EFT or Electronic Funds Transfer and then the check will be voided and handed back to you.
Walmart does accept personal checks for payment.
However you cannot write a check at Walmart for your purchases if your banking account or checking account is negative.
If you have no money in your account then the check will not clear and your transaction will be declined.
So you must have money in your checking account before you can write a check at Walmart.
I once tried to write a check at Walmart a day before my money got deposited into my checking account but when they put the check through the machine to verify the check and it would not accept it.
However I did have cash with me so it wasn't an issue.
When writing a check at Walmart the check must be dated for that day and not post dated as Walmart does not accept Post Dated Checks and the funds must be in your account and your checking account must not be negative.
You also need ID for the check so they can verify it's you who is writing the check and not check fraud occurring.
As long as you have money in your account, the check is in your name and you have ID then Walmart will accept the check for payment of your purchases but only at registers with Cashiers.
The Self Checkouts do not accept checks.